Pineapple is one of the delicious fruits. Pineapple fruits are compound oval fruits, usually 6 to 8 inches long with spiky, robust leaves at the top of the fruit. The tough, waxy rind is green, brown, and yellow in color with a scale-like appearance.  The flesh of the pineapple is juicy and yellow to white in color.

Pineapple plants are herbaceous perennials and these plants can reach 5 feet tall and 4 feet wide. The pineapple fruit grows on a stalk in the center of the rosette of leaves. Leaves of pineapple are waxy, strap-shaped leaves 2 to 6 feet in length.  They usually have a sharp point on the tip of the leaf and spines along the margins of the leaves. The leaves may be green or variegated in color.

Only if the fruit matures on the plant then Pineapple fruit quality is at its best. They do not become sweeter if harvested earlier since there are no starch reserves to be converted to sugar. The sugar content must therefore come from the rest of the plant.

Pineapples are 15% sugar along with malic and citric acids. A pineapple wine is fermented in areas near where it is grown.  It is rarely seen outside of the tropics therefore it does not store well so.  Pineapples also contain bromelain, a protein digesting and milk-clotting enzyme similar to pepsin. Bromelain is used commercially to tenderize meat and chill-proof beer. It is due to bromelain that people belief that pineapples are good for digestion.

Nutritional Facts

Following are the nutritional facts of 100 grams of raw pineapple

  • Energy – 202 kJ (48 kcal)
  • Carbohydrates – 12.63 g
  • Sugars – 9.26 g
  • Dietary fiber – 1.4 g
  • Fat – 0.12 g
  • Protein – 0.54 g
  • Thiamine (Vit. B1) – 0.079 mg (6%)
  • Riboflavin (Vit. B2) – 0.031 mg (2%)
  • Niacin (Vit. B3) – 0.489 mg (3%)
  • Pantothenic acid (B5) – 0.205 mg (4%)
  • Vitamin B6 – 0.110 mg (8%)
  • Folate (Vit. B9) – 15 μg (4%)
  • Vitamin C – 36.2 mg (60%)
  • Calcium – 13 mg (1%)
  • Iron – 0.28 mg (2%)
  • Magnesium – 12 mg (3%)
  • Phosphorus – 8 mg (1%)
  • Potassium – 115 mg (2%)
  • Zinc – 0.10 mg (1%)

Scientific Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae, Angiosperms, Monocots, Commelinids
  • Order – Poales
  • Family – Bromeliaceae
  • Subfamily – Bromelioideae
  • Genus – Ananas
  • Species – A. comosus
  • Binomial name – Ananas comosus


The fruit of the mulberry is quite similar to the blackberry. Mulberry is an aggregate fruit that is composed of many smaller fruits called drupes.  Therefore, botanically it is not a true berry. Mulberries grow on a deciduous tree that can reach 30 to 80 feet in height.

The skin is smooth and fragile. The colour of mulberry changes from green to red to dark purple as it matures. There are also white mulberry varieties that exist. Mulberry is distinguished from blackberries and raspberries as it have a stem that persists on the fruit when it is picked from the tree.

Mulberry fruit taste sweet, but a richer flavor develops if the fruit is dried. Eyesight is strengthened by the regular consumption of mulberry. When Mulberry is taken daily it promotes and nourishes body fluid production. Presence of nutritious elements like minerals and vitamins in mulberry helps in recovering of chronic diseases. Mulberry is helpful for proper gastric juice secretion. Regular intake of mulberry juice enhances appetite, and improves the ability for digesting and assimilating. Mulberry is helpful in treating constipation.

Mulberries need full sun and also adequate space in order to grow well. The distance between trees should be at least 15 ft. The trees should not be planted near a sidewalk. The fallen fruit will not only stain the walkway, but are likely to be tracked indoors. The trees are quite wind-resistant therefore some cultivars used it as windbreaks in the Great Plains region.

Nutrition Facts

The mulberry is low in Saturated Fat, Cholesterol and Sodium and is high in Vitamin C, Vitamin K, Iron, Dietary Fibre, Riboflavin, Magnesium and Potassium. Following are the nutritional values of raw mulberry of 100grams

  • Carbohydrates – 4.5 grams
  • Fibre – 2 grams
  • Fat – 0 gram
  • Energy – 120 kj

Scientific Classification

Following is the scientific classification of Mulberry

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Phylum – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Order – Rosales
  • Family – Moraceae
  • Genus – Morus


The rowans also named as mountain ashes are the shrubs or small trees. They belong to the family of Rosaceae and its genus is Sorbus. These are found in cool temperate region of Northern Hemisphere. It has many species and the highest species are found in the western China and in the Himalaya.

Rowan is known with many other names which includes Delight of the eye (Luisliu), Mountain ash, Quickbane, Quickbeam, Quicken (tree), Quickenbeam, Ran tree, Roan tree, Roden-quicken, Roden-quicken-royan, Round wood, Round tree, Royne tree, Rune tree, Sorb apple, Thor’s helper, Whispering tree, Whitty, Wicken-tree, Wiggin, Wiggy, Wiky, Witch wood, Witchbane, Witchen, Witchen Wittern tree.

Rowans can be seen in parks and gardens as they are very good small ornamental trees and are commonly seen in wildlife areas. Some of the species of rowan bears a white fruit and these are popular for their unusual berry. The trees will carry large clusters of fruits. These will attract fruit eating birds. The wood of the tree is widely used for carving and turning and in addition to this it is used for tool handles and walking sticks. It also serves as tannins in order to mordant vegetable dyes.

The berries of Rowan are used in making slightly bitter jelly and it is also used into jams and other preserves. The berries are used as a substitute for coffee beans. These berries have many uses in the preparation of alcoholic beverages. It is also used to flavour ale, liqueurs and cordials and is used to produce country wine.

Scientific Classification

Following is the scientific classification of Rowan

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Order – Rosales
  • Family – Rosaceae
  • Genus – Sorbus
  • Subgenus – Sorbus


These fruits are very hard and acidic. They can only be eaten after being softened by frost. The skin rapidly takes a wrinkled texture after softening begins and it will turn dark brown. Once they are softened they can be eaten raw and they are often eaten with cheese as dessert.

These can also be used to make Medlar jelly and wine. Another famous dish is “medlar cheese”, this dish is similar to lemon curd which is made up with fruit pulp, eggs and butter. Medlars are deciduous large shrubs or small trees growing up to 8 m tall. The leaves of the tree are dark green and elliptic.

In autumn the leaves turn a spectacular red before falling. The five petalled white flowers are hermaphrodite and are produced in late spring and these are pollinated by trees. The fruit is a prone and these are usually two to three centimetres in diameter. Its sepals are wide- spread persistent which will give a hollow appearance to the fruit.

It is a fruit which is related to quinces and apples and it is the part of the rose family. The wood of the tress is light red in colour and it is usually hard with a very fine grain. This wood was often used for canes and walking sticks. This tree will start to bear fruit after 4 to 6 years and these trees are very long lived. The leaves of the tree are long and pointed with underneath hairs.

Scientific Classification

The scientific classification of medlar is as follows

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Order – Rosales
  • Family – Rosaceae
  • Subfamily – Maloideae or Spiraeoideae
  • Genus – Mespilus


Following are the two species of Medlar

  • Mespilus canescens
  • Mespilus germanica


Salmonberries are raspberry shaped fruit. Their colour ranges from pale yellow to deep orange. It is found across much of the Pacific Northwest. Depending upon the maturity of the fruit, the berries can be slightly bitter to sweet and these are often snacked upon by passing hikers.

These are used to make passable jam and preserves if enough are collected but these are usually not found for sale unless at small farm stands and markets. These berries are sometimes confused with cloudberries.

These grow on bushes of up to six feet tall with broad, fuzzy leaves and thorns. The thorns can be soft and yielding or firmer, posing a threat to clothing and unprotected body parts. Salmonberries carry small pink flower which when matures turns into fruit. They usually mature between June and August. This plant will usually be found along streams and in moist forests, it will prefer damp soil and partial sunlight.

Many of the salmonberries which are available come in orange variety and are quite tasty. The dark reddish berry is not as tasty as is orange one. Salmonberries are the rich source of Vitamin C, due to this they are slightly tart and dry flavour. Large numbers of antioxidants are contained in it. It is usually served with a variety of other wine fruits.

Scientific Classification

Following is the scientific classification of salmonberry

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division – Magnoliophyta
  • Class – Magnoliopsida
  • Order – Rosales
  • Family – Rosaceae
  • Genus – Rubus
  • Species – R. spectabilis
  • Binomial name – Rubus spectabilis

Nutritional Facts

Following are the nutritional facts of 1 ounce of salmonberries

  • Calories – 13
  • Sodium – 4 mg
  • Total Carbohydrate – 3 g
  • Dietary Fibre – 1 g
  • Sugars – 1 g
  • Vitamin A – 3%
  • Vitamin C – 4%
  • Iron – 1%
  • Calcium – 0%

Rose hip

Rose hip is the aggregate fruit of the rose plant. It consists of several dry fruitlets which are enclosed by the enlarged, fleshy floral cups which are usually red in colour. It is often used for jelly or tea. Rose hips are also known as rose haw. It is a pomaceous fruit.

These fruits are begun to form in spring season and they ripen in late summer through autumn. There are various health benefits of rosehips. They contain vitamin C, some vitamin A and B, essential fatty acids and antioxidant flavonoids

It can be used for many things. With the help of rose hips herbal tea, jam, jelly, syrup, soup, beverages, pies, bread, wine, and marmalade are prepared. There are some species of rose which are grown specifically for the ornamental value of their hips, the example of such rose is Rosa moyesii.

In order to treat pet chinchillas, these are becoming extremely popular. Vitamin C is not manufactured by the Chinchillas and they lack the proper internal organs and are therefore unable to process many Vitamin C rich foods.  Sugarless, safe way to increase the Vitamin C intake of chinchillas and guinea pigs is provided by Rosehips. These are also used to feed horses.

Scientific Classification

Following is the scientific classification of rosehip

  • Kingdom – Plantae, Angiosperms, Eudicots, Rosids
  • Order – Rosales
  • Family – Rosaceae
  • Subfamily – Rosoideae
  • Genus – Rosa
  • Botanical Name  – Rosa Canina